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Risk Management in Banking

June 13, 2022 0
Risk Management in Banking


Risk is the potential outcome of gaining or losing something. Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty. uncertainty is an unpredictable, potential, and uncontrollable outcome. So, risk is a consequence of action taken in spite of uncertainty.

Risk Management

Risk management is the process of identifying and analysing risks and managing their consequences. The banking sector has perhaps the most specific focus on the management of financial risk.
Risk Management

Risk management is a discipline at the core of every financial institution and encompasses all the activities that affect its risk profile. It involves identifying, measuring, monitoring and controlling risk to ensure that 

  • The individuals who take our manage risk clearly understand it.
  • Risk exposure is within the limits set by the BOD.
  • Risk taking decisions are explicitly and clear.
  • Risk taking decisions is in line with the business strategy and objective set by BOD.
  • Sufficient capital as a buffer is available to take risk.

Core Risks
the central bank provides different core risk management guidelines through different circular in order to regulate the core risk activities in commercial banks. There are six core risks.

  1. Credit risk management
  2. Assets liabilities risk management
  3. Foreign exchange risk management 
  4. Money laundering risk management
  5. Internal control and compliance risk management 
  6. Information and communication technology risk management 

Negotiable Instrument: Definition, Types and Characteristics

June 09, 2022 0
Negotiable Instrument: Definition, Types and Characteristics

Definition of Negotiable Instrument

In simple words, a negotiable instrument is a written document where there is an order to give the written amount of money to the bearer or a specific person.

A negotiable instrument means a promissory note, bill of exchange, or cheque payable either to order or to the bearer.

Types of Negotiable Instrument 

There are two types of a negotiable instrument. 

  1. Negotiable Instrument by Statute: Promissory Note, Bill of Exchange, and Cheque.
  2. Negotiable Instrument by Mercantile usage: Bank Draft, Pay Order, CDR, SDR, Dividend Warrant, Interest Warrant, Refund Warrant.
Cheque: a negotiable instrument
Quasy Negotiable Instruments: The Negotiable Instruments Act 1881 does not talk of any other Negotiable Instruments except bills promissory notes checks and Bank drafts but there are some instruments that are in practice, treated as negotiable for certain events only, and are so regarded by users and custom. Some of these are documents of title of goods and property while others are documents of value. Such as 
  • bill of lading 
  • stock and share certificates
  • debentures
  • dividend warrants
  • interest coupons and 
  • treasury bills
Characteristics of Negotiable Instruments
  • It is easily transferable.  Almost like cash is transferred from one hand to the other.
  • Receivers are specified- drawer, drawee, payee, etc.
  • No prior notice is required for such acquisition.
  • It must be written and signed by the author.
  • Its legal possession is the proprietor of the written amount of money.
  • The legal holder may file suit in his own name on the transferable document.
  • All the features of the contract are present in the transferable document.
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Marketing Management

June 03, 2022 1
Marketing Management

Marketing is the process of identifying the market's needs, creating value for a product or service, and meeting the needs through offering the product or service.

Marketing Management is the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value.

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Marketing: Meaning and Definition

June 03, 2022 0
Marketing: Meaning and Definition

Definition of Marketing

Marketing is the process of identifying human needs and demands and meeting them properly.

Marketing is the process of making potential customers into loyal customers through identifying their needs, creating value for a product or service, and delivering them in satisfactory ways.

According to The American Marketing Association, "Marketing is the activity, set of institutions and process for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large."

What is Marketed?

There are ten types of entities that can be marketed by marketers. These are
  1. Goods
  2. Services
  3. Events
  4. Experiences
  5. Persons
  6. Places
  7. Properties
  8. Organizations
  9. Information, and
  10. Ideas

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Definition of Planning

June 01, 2022 0
Definition of Planning

Planning is the first and one of the most important task of management process. Because the businessmen can take decisions in advance with the help of planning what one should do and what one should not do.

Planning is related with taking advance decision of the something in future. So planning is the advance decision of a work done in future.

Planning is the process of selecting the most appropriate program to achieve a goal by means of an intelligent mental process.

According to W. H. Newman, "Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done; that is, a plan is a projected course of action."

According to Stoner, Freeman & Gilbert, "Planning is a particular kind of decision-making that addresses the specific future that manager desire for their organisation."

According to Griffin, "Planning means setting an organisational goals and deciding how best to achieve them."

So, Planning is a process through which one sets an goal and few objectives, takes decision in advance what to be done to achieve the goal and works following the decision.
Definition of planning

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Organizational Behaviour

May 29, 2022 0
Organizational Behaviour

Organizational behavior is a practical branch of behavior science that deals with the behavior of people working in an organization.

According to Keith Davis, "Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about human behavior in organizations as it relates to other system elements, such as structure, technology, and the external social system."

According to Larry L. Cummings, "Organizational behavior is a way of thinking, a way of conceiving problems and articulating research and action solution."
Organizational Behavior

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May 26, 2022 0

Ecotourism means Ecology Tourism. From the full meaning we can understand that it is ecology or environment related tourism. In one word ecotourism is environment friendly tourism.

At first you have to know what is tourism.

Tourism is the sum of activities after going outside of one's residential area not more than one consecutive year for the purpose of traveling, business, medical or others.

Ecotourism is a form of tourism where visitors travel for the purpose of enjoying the natural beauty of a destination with lower environmental impact.

That means Ecotourism is a one kind of tourism where there is no impact or lower impact of the visitors with their activists to the environment.

Example of ecotourism

Travelling to the south asian largest mangrove forest - Sundarban.

Characteristics of ecotourism 

  • Having no impact or lower impact to the environment.
  • Travelling to nature.
  • Conserving environment.
  • Observing wildlife.
  • Enjoying the daily activities of rural people.
  • Enjoying the nature.
  • Ensuring sustainable tourism.

Traveller of Ecotourism

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What is Leadership?

May 22, 2022 0
What is Leadership?

Leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members.

Leadership comes from the English word "Lead" which means to guide, to conduct, to direct, to include, and so on. A leader influences all by his behavior. For this reason, leadership is called an art. 

So, Leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically toward objectives.

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